The need for communications between tasks depends upon your problem:
Origins[ edit ] Thinking in abstractions is considered by anthropologistsarchaeologistsand sociologists to be one of the key traits in modern human behaviourwhich is believed to have developed between 50, andyears ago.
Its development is likely to have been closely connected with the development of human languagewhich whether spoken or written appears to both involve and facilitate abstract thinking. History[ edit ] Abstraction involves induction of ideas or the synthesis of particular facts into one general theory about something.
It is the opposite of specification, which is the analysis or breaking-down of a general idea or abstraction into concrete facts. Bacon used and promoted induction as an abstraction tool, and it countered the ancient deductive -thinking approach that had dominated the intellectual world since the times of Greek philosophers like ThalesAnaximanderand Aristotle.
He deduced or specified from a general idea, "everything is water", to the specific forms of water such as ice, snow, fog, and rivers.
Modern scientists can also use the opposite approach of abstraction, or going from particular facts collected into one general idea, such as the motion of the planets Newton — When determining that the sun is the center of our solar system Copernicus —scientists had to utilize thousands of measurements to finally conclude that Mars moves in an elliptical orbit about the sun Kepler —or to assemble multiple specific facts into the law of falling bodies Galileo — Compression[ edit ] An abstraction can be seen as a compression process,  mapping multiple different pieces of constituent data to a single piece of abstract data;  based on similarities in the constituent data, for example, many different physical cats map to the abstraction "CAT".
This conceptual scheme emphasizes the inherent equality of both constituent and abstract data, thus avoiding problems arising from the distinction between "abstract" and " concrete ". In this sense the process of abstraction entails the identification of similarities between objects, and the process of associating these objects with an abstraction which is itself an object.
For example, picture 1 below illustrates the concrete relationship "Cat sits on Mat". Chains of abstractions can be construed moving from neural impulses arising from sensory perception to basic abstractions such as color or shapeto experiential abstractions such as a specific cat, to semantic abstractions such as the "idea" of a CAT, to classes of objects such as "mammals" and even categories such as " object " as opposed to "action".
For example, graph 1 below expresses the abstraction "agent sits on location". This conceptual scheme entails no specific hierarchical taxonomy such as the one mentioned involving cats and mammalsonly a progressive exclusion of detail.
Instantiation[ edit ] Non-existent things in any particular place and time are often seen as abstract. By contrast, instances, or members, of such an abstract thing might exist in many different places and times.
Those abstract things are then said to be multiply instantiated, in the sense of picture 1, picture 2, etc.
It is not sufficient, however, to define abstract ideas as those that can be instantiated and to define abstraction as the movement in the opposite direction to instantiation. Doing so would make the concepts "cat" and "telephone" abstract ideas since despite their varying appearances, a particular cat or a particular telephone is an instance of the concept "cat" or the concept "telephone".
Although the concepts "cat" and "telephone" are abstractions, they are not abstract in the sense of the objects in graph 1 below. We might look at other graphs, in a progression from cat to mammal to animal, and see that animal is more abstract than mammal; but on the other hand mammal is a harder idea to express, certainly in relation to marsupial or monotreme.
Perhaps confusingly, some philosophies refer to tropes instances of properties as abstract particulars —e. This is similar to qualia and sumbebekos. The state polity as both concept and material practice exemplifies the two sides of this process of abstraction. That difference accounts for the ontological usefulness of the word "abstract".
The word applies to properties and relations to mark the fact that, if they exist, they do not exist in space or time, but that instances of them can exist, potentially in many different places and times.
For example, record-keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi clay spheres, cones, etc.
The containers thus served as something of a bill of lading or an accounts book. In order to avoid breaking open the containers for the count, marks were placed on the outside of the containers. These physical marks, in other words, acted as material abstractions of a materially abstract process of accounting, using conceptual abstractions numbers to communicate its meaning.
That definition, however, suffers from the difficulty of deciding which things are real i. For example, it is difficult to agree to whether concepts like God, the number three, and goodness are real, abstract, or both.
An approach to resolving such difficulty is to use predicates as a general term for whether things are variously real, abstract, concrete, or of a particular property e.Writing for Results A Step-by-Step Model for Successful Briefings II In some cases, you will find that citing an abstract concept and a single concrete example will serve your purpose perfectly.
Chapter II-3, Substance vs. Froth, gives you an excellent illustration of this. Best Abstract Examples Anytime students are required to write an APA style paper, they start googling for examples of abstract online.
While some practical, real-life samples can prove pretty useful in your research, you still have to understand that even an amazing example abstract will be of no use if you do not understand why you need this section .
Abstract Painting: Concepts and Techniques [Vicky Perry, Barry Schwabsky] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. "Abstraction allows man to see with his mind what he cannot physically see with his eyes Abstract art enables the artist to perceive beyond the tangible.
An informative abstract is an expanded version of the descriptive abstract. In addition to information about the purpose, scope, and research methods used, the informative abstract summarizes the results, conclusions, and any recommendations.
Your writing (whether it's in an essay, a letter, a memorandum, a report, an advertisement, or a resume) will be clearer, more interesting, and better remembered if it is dominated by concrete and specific terms, and if it keeps abstract . Brief but packed with information.
Each sentence must be written with maximum impact in mind. To keep your abstract short, focus on including just four or five of the essential points, concepts, or findings.