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Sphalerite ZnS The general focus of this document will be on metaliferrous ores represented by run-of-mine material Advantages of ragging in category 3 above.
An exception to the above discussion of mineral processing arises when the valuable component of the ore is extracted directly by chemical methods.
The most common and notable example of this are precious metal values gold, silver etc.
Firstly, it involves the preparation and liberation, of the valuable minerals from waste minerals and secondly, the separation these values into two or more products, called concentrates. The term separation in this case is synonymous with concentration.
These functions are carried out within the constraints of the following three rules. The first rule deals with the conservation of mass. The total Advantages of ragging of the material into the process plant equals the total flow out. The second rule relates to the quality or grade of the concentrate product.
In practice, it is impossible to produce a concentrate consisting of only one mineral. The third rule is a corollary of the second. It is impractical to recover all of the valuable minerals into the concentrate.
Typical processing flowsheet for metalliferous ores The flowsheet in Figure 1 shows diagrammatically the typical sequence of operations in the process plant. The various unit operations used for liberation and separation will be discussed in the following sections.
This process of size reduction is called comminution. The crushing and grinding process will produce a range of particles with varying degrees of liberation Figure 2.
Any particles that exceed a target size required for physical separation or chemical extraction are returned to the crushing or the grinding circuit.
Breaking of larger material to smaller pieces result in particles with varying degrees of liberation. The darker regions represent the valuable mineral 3. This is necessary in order to generate a material that is transportable by haul trucks or conveyors.
Comminution in the mineral processing plant is carried out in a sequential manner using crushers and screens followed by grinding mills and classifiers.
The various types of comminution equipment including their general application are described in detail below. The two most common primary crushers used for coarse run-of-mine material are the jaw and gyratory crushers.
These primary crushers break rock through compressive forces created by a hard moving surface forcing and squeezing the rocks towards a hard stationary surface.
The compression is created by forcing the rock against the stationary plate as shown in figure 3. The opening at the bottom of the jaw plates is the crusher product size gap.
The rocks remain in the jaws until it is small enough to pass through this adjustabe gap at the bottom of the jaws. In a gyratory crusher, a round moving crushing surface is located within a round hard shell which serves as the stationary surface figure 3. The crushing action is created by the closing the gap between the hard crushing surface attached to the spindle and the concave liners fixed mounted on the main frame of the crusher.
The gap is opened and closed by an eccentric drive on the bottom of the spindle that causes the central vertical spindle to gyrate. Primary and secondary crushers Secondary Crushers — Cone Crusher The most common type of secondary crusher is the cone crusher.
A cone crusher is very similar to the gyratory but has a much shorter spindle with a larger diameter crushing surface relative to its the vertical dimension. The eccentric motion of the inner crushing cone is similar to that of the gyratory crusher.
Impact Crushers Impact crushers involve the use of high speed impact rather than compresssion to crush material. They utilize hinged or fixed heavy metal hammers or bars attached to the edges of horizontal rotating disks.
The bars repeatedly strike the material to be crushed. Then the material is thrown against a rugged solid surface which further degrades the particle size. Finally, the material is forced over a discharge grate or screen by the hammers through which the finer particles drop while larger particles are swept around for another crushing cycle until they are fine enough to fall through a discharge grid.
This type of crusher is normally used on soft materials such as coal or limestone due to the high wear experienced by the impact hammers, bars and inner surfaces. These crushers are normally employed for secondary or tertiary crushing. Roll Crushers Rolls crushers consists of a pair of horizontal cylindrical rollers through which material is passed.Apr 22, · A maximum of two weeks is enough to have experienced the desired benefits.
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