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The author of this treatise has endeavored to put within brief compass the essential facts pertaining to the history and use of the word, and he thinks he has conclusively shown that it affords no support whatever to the erroneous doctrine.
It will generally be conceded that the tenet referred to is not contained in the Scriptures if the meaning of endless duration does not reside in the controverted word. The reader is implored to examine the evidence presented, as the author trusts it has been collected, with a sincere desire to learn the truth.
This essay aims to prove the popular impression erroneous. The inquiry will be pursued in a manner that shall be satisfactory to the scholar, and also enable the ordinary reader to apprehend the facts, so that both the learned and the unlearned may be able to see the subject in a light that shall relieve the Scriptures of seeming to teach a doctrine that blackens the character of God, and plunges a deadly sting into the believing heart.
We proceed to show that the sense of interminable duration does not reside in the word. Three avenues are open to us in which to pursue this important investigation.
Our first appeal will be to Etymology. An ounce of usage is worth a pound of it. Etymology is theory, usage is fact. Suppose two thousand years hence some one should endeavor to prove that in the year the word prevent meant to go before. He could establish his position by the etymology of the word, but he would be wholly wrong, as would appear by universal usage in our current literature.
But its derivation does not point in that direction. It was transferred from breathing to collection, or multitude of times. Commenting on Lennep's derivation of the word, Rev.
But this etymology is not the popular one. In describing the highest heaven, the residence of the gods, Aristotle says: For indeed, the word itself according to the ancients, divinely expressed this. Boise, 6 Professor of Greek in the University of Chicago: But, beyond the heaven, it has been shown that there is neither a body, nor can there be.
It is plain, therefore, that there is neither space, nor void, nor time beyond. The passage of Aristotle in which his etymology occurs, has been mistranslated, for it does not give the etymology of the abstract idea eternity, but of the concrete idea God, as an ever-existing person, from whom all other personal beings derived existence and life.
But Aristotle does not say or intimate that the word had the meaning of eternity in his day, nor does his statement of its derivation prove that it had that meaning then.
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I give two instances. The multitude desired Pilate to release a prisoner, Mark xv: It is alway, or always, or ever, in each text.
Liddell and Scott give more than fifty compounds of aei. Grimm rejects it, and Robinson in his latest editions gives both etymologies without deciding between them.
We have shown that aei is used eight times in the New Testament, and not in the sense of endless, once. We shall prove that Aristotle himself uniformly used the word in the sense of limited duration, and under the head of Classic Usage will hereafter prove that at the time the Old Testament was rendered into Greek, this was the only meaning the word had with any Greek writer.
Adopt either derivation, and indefinite duration is the easy and natural meaning of the word, if we suffer ourselves to be guided by its etymology. Eternity can only be expressed by it when it is accompanied by other words, denoting endless duration, or by the name of Deity.
All will agree that words may change their meaning, and therefore that etymology is an uncertain guide.
If etymology point in one direction, and usage in another, the former must yield; but if both utter one fact, each reinforces and strengthens the other. This we have illustrated by the etymology of 'prevent.
Words start out with a certain meaning, and change it in process of time.
That it had not that meaning at first would not hinder it from being thus used subsequently. Etymology proves nothing one way or the other, its evidence is but prima facie; usage is the only decisive authority.
But etymology gives no warrant for applying the idea of eternity to the word. We have proceeded on the ground that Aristotle's etymology is authoritative.
But nothing is further from the truth. The scholarship of to-day, possessed by an average educated philologist, is far more competent to trace this or any Greek word to its real source, than Plato or Aristotle was able to do.
In his analysis of Plato's Cratylus, 8 Grote accurately observes of Plato's etymologies:All caps are typically used for either of two reasons: Visual Style Capital letters are often used on covers of magazines, in logos and artsy-typography, usually to emphasise the visual style of the letters themselves, rather than the word.
General. opencsv is an easy-to-use CSV (comma-separated values) parser library for Java. It was developed because all the CSV parsers at the time didn't have commercial-friendly licenses.
(used relatively in restrictive clauses having that as the antecedent): Damaged goods constituted part of that which was sold at the auction. (used after a preposition to represent a specified antecedent): the horse on which I rode.
(used relatively to represent a specified or implied antecedent) the one that; a particular one that: You may choose which you like. Below you will see a chart of English language word roots that are common prefixes and suffixes to base words. (This list is similar to that which appeared previously on this site.).
Definition. A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase, which is a group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship, such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having grown used to this harassment." A review of the different kinds of phrases might be helpful.
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