Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology used to connect devices of different functions such as telephones, computers laptop or desktopnotebooks, cameras, printer s and so on.
Uses[ edit ] Microwaves are widely used for point-to-point communications because their small wavelength allows conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams, which can be pointed directly at the receiving antenna. This allows nearby microwave equipment to use the same frequencies without interfering with each other, as lower frequency radio waves do.
Another advantage is that the high frequency of microwaves gives the microwave band a very large information-carrying capacity; the microwave band has a bandwidth 30 times that of all the rest of the radio spectrum below it. A disadvantage is that microwaves are limited to line of sight propagation; they cannot pass around hills or mountains as lower frequency radio waves can.
A parabolic satellite antenna for Erdfunkstelle Raisting, based in RaistingBavariaGermany Microwave radio transmission is commonly used in point-to-point communication systems on the surface of the Earth, in satellite communicationsand in deep space radio communications.
Other parts of the microwave radio band are used for radarsradio navigation systems, sensor systems, and radio astronomy. Radio waves in this band are usually strongly attenuated by the Earthly atmosphere and particles contained in it, especially during wet weather.
The electronic technologies needed in the millimeter wave band are also much more difficult to utilize than those of the microwave band. Wireless transmission of information One-way e.
In microwave radio relay, microwaves are transmitted on a line of sight path between relay stations using directional antennasforming a fixed radio connection between the two points. The requirement of a line of sight limits the separation between stations to the visual horizon, about 30 to 50 miles.
Before the widespread use of communications satelliteschains of microwave relay stations were used to transmit telecommunication signals over transcontinental distances.
Much of the transcontinental traffic is now carried by cheaper optical fibers and communication satellitesbut microwave relay remains important for shorter distances.
Antennas must be highly directional high gain ; these antennas are installed in elevated locations such as large radio towers in order to be able to transmit across long distances. Typical types of antenna used in radio relay link installations are parabolic antennasdielectric lens, and horn-reflector antennaswhich have a diameter of up to 4 meters.
Highly directive antennas permit an economical use of the available frequency spectrum, despite long transmission distances. Danish military radio relay node Because of the high frequencies used, a line-of-sight path between the stations is required. Additionally, in order to avoid attenuation of the beam, an area around the beam called the first Fresnel zone must be free from obstacles.
Obstacles in the signal field cause unwanted attenuation. High mountain peak or ridge positions are often ideal. Production truck used for remote broadcasts by television news has a microwave dish on a retractible telescoping mast to transmit live video back to the studio.
Obstacles, the curvature of the Earth, the geography of the area and reception issues arising from the use of nearby land such as in manufacturing and forestry are important issues to consider when planning radio links.
In the planning process, it is essential that "path profiles" are produced, which provide information about the terrain and Fresnel zones affecting the transmission path. The presence of a water surface, such as a lake or river, along the path also must be taken into consideration since it can reflect the beam, and the direct and reflected beam can interfere at the receiving antenna, causing multipath fading.
Rare events of temperature, humidity and pressure profile versus height, may produce large deviations and distortion of the propagation and affect transmission quality. All previous factors, collectively known as path lossmake it necessary to compute suitable power margins, in order to maintain the link operative for a high percentage of time, like the standard Hop distance is the distance between two microwave stations  Previous considerations represent typical problems characterizing terrestrial radio links using microwaves for the so-called backbone networks: During s microwave radio links begun widely to be used for urban links in cellular network.
Furthermore, link planning deals more with intense rainfall and less with multipath, so diversity schemes became less used. Another big change that occurred during the last decade was an evolution toward packet radio transmission.
Therefore, new countermeasures, such as adaptive modulationhave been adopted. The emitted power is regulated by norms EIRP both for cellular system and microwave. In the last decade the dedicated spectrum for each microwave band reaches an extreme overcrowding, forcing efforts towards techniques for increasing the transmission capacity frequency reuse, Polarization-division multiplexingXPICMIMO.
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History[ edit ] Antennas of experimental 1. The receiving antenna background, right was located behind the transmitting antenna to avoid interference. US Army Signal Corps portable microwave relay station, Microwave relay systems were first developed in World War II for secure military communication.
The first experiments with radio repeater stations to relay radio signals were done in by Emile Guarini-Foresio. In an Anglo-French consortium headed by Andre C. A military microwave link between airports at St.
After the war telephone companies used this technology to build large microwave radio relay networks to carry long distance telephone calls. It was expected at that time that the annual operating costs for microwave radio would be greater than for cable.[T]he public is now understandably wary of safety assurances from “official” government scientific sources w.r.t.
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